Whereas the States of the world form a community governed by international
Whereas the progressive development of international law requires effective organization of the community of States,
Whereas a great majority of the States of the world have accordingly established a new international order under the Charter of the United Nations, and most of the other States of the world have declared their desire to live within this order,
Whereas a primary purpose of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, and the reign of law and justice is essential to the realization of this purpose, and
Whereas it is therefore desirable to formulate certain basic rights and duties of States in the light of new developments of international law and in harmony with the Charter of the United Nations,
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopts and proclaims this Declaration on Rights and Duties of States:
Every State has the right to independence and hence to exercise freely, without dictation by any other State, all its legal powers, including the choice of its own form of government.
Every State has the right to exercise jurisdiction over its territory and over all persons and things therein, subject to the immunities recognized by international law.
Every State has the duty to refrain from intervention in the internal or external affairs of any other State.
Every State has the duty to refrain from fomenting civil strife in the territory of another State, and to prevent the organization within its territory of activities calculated to foment such civil strife.
Every State has the right to equality in law with every other State.
Every State has the duty to treat all persons under its jurisdiction with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
Every State has the duty to ensure that conditions prevailing in its territory do not menace international peace and order.
Every State has the duty to settle its disputes with other States by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
Every State has the duty to refrain from resorting to war as an instrument of national policy, and to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of another State, or in any other manner inconsistent with international law and order.
Every State has the duty to refrain from giving assistance to any State which is acting in violation of article 9, or against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
Every State has the duty to refrain from recognizing any territorial acquisition by another State acting in violation of article 9.
Every State has the right of individual or collective self-defence against armed attack.
Every State has the duty to carry out in good faith its obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law, and it may not invoke provisions in its constitution or its laws as an excuse for failure to perform this duty.
Every State has the duty to conduct its relations with other States in accordance with international law and with the principle that the sovereignty of each State is subject to the supremacy of international law.